Tuesday, December 10, 2019
INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the study, significance of the study, the objective of the study and the scopes and limitations Background of the Study A lot of parents are neither aware nor updated on their childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in school; they did not know the grades that their child had received. Usually, students do not want to show their grades to their parents or their parents live in a distance place that is why they do not have the chance to show their grades even if they like to do so. These are the main reason why I had created this research. Base on my research, nowadays, universities like FEU, DLSU, AdU, UST, UPHS and ADMU use ONLINE GRADE INQUIRY, they had a common objective and those are: For the parents to be updated on their childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and to avoid children bluffs about their grades. It is not good to hear, but that is the reality. We will write a custom essay sample on Online Grade Inquiry System or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The ONLINE GRADE INQUIRY that I had designed is very user friendly that is why there is no reason for the parents to worry not to be able to use this just because they do not usually use computer and internet. General Objective This study aims to develop an Online Grade Inquiry for Pateros Technological College. Specific Objectives 1To design an Online Grade Inquiry System that allows both parents and students to access to the said system. 2To design a system relative to the above that is easy to use for those parents who are computer illiterate. 3To design a system that is secured which cannot be modified or retrieved by unauthorized person. Significance of the Study Ã¢â¬ ¢This study is very accurate for those parents who are in abroad or provinces. Ã¢â¬ ¢I have thought of Online Grade Inquiry, because I want the parents to be updated on their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school grades or performance. Some working students are not able to see their class cards, because of lack of time. This Online Grade Inquiry will help them see their grades with a minimum time, and if ever the students misplaced their class cards, there is nothing to worry, because Online Grade Inquiry is one proof that they had already taken and passed the subjects. Scope and Limitations The Online Grade Inquiry of Pateros Techno logical College is exclusive only for the students and parents of the said school. For the students and parents to access the system, they need to encode the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s number as username and middle name as password. If there are other persons who know your username and password, students and parents do not need to worry, because it is not possible to change the grades that has been already encoded there. The only person who is able to encode and change the grades is the school registrar. This diagram showed the abstract representation of a systems components and their relationships and which describes the aggregated functionality and performance of the system. Hierarchical Input-Process-Output (HIPO) Proposed This diagram will define procedures and operations in a hierarchical manner, orrelating input, processing, and output steps with the integrated whole expressed in the hierarchy diagram. A context Diagram shows the system boundaries, external entities that interact with the system, and the relevant information flows between these external entities and the system. Data Flow Diagram This chart traces the movement of data in a computer system and shows how the data is to be processed. Pateros T echnological College Pateros, Metro Manila The Development of Online Grading Inquiry System In Partial Fulfillment of Research Method Presented to: Mr. Rolando Baylon Prepared by: Capuchino, Gilbert Jr. E. Sulaguit, Rosvelt T.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Rwanda s recent history has been marked by the race murder of 1994 in which at least 800.000 people, approximately 10 per centum of the population, lost their lives. As a consequence of the race murder, there was a entire dislocation of establishment systems, constructions and human capacity in Rwanda. Since so the state has gone through the painful challenge of reconstructing all this. Stability and security have been restored, and recovery has been under manner for several old ages now. In 2007, Rwanda came up with the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy ( EDPRS ) . In the EDPRS, the appellation poorness is conceptualised in absolute footings, every bit good as in comparative footings. Harmonizing to absolute conceptualizations of poorness, which can besides be referred to as physical subsistence definition, poorness is the want of economic resources that are required to run into for illustration nutrient, shelter and vesture. And on the other manus, comparative poorness is conceptualised as the want of economic resources that are required for dignified engagement in society. We will write a custom essay sample on The Economical Development And Poverty Reduction Strategy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page First of all the EDPRS negotiations about absolute poorness. Two povertylines are set the first is the Extreme Povertyline set at 150 Rwandan Francs ( RWF ) ( $ 0.26 )[ 1 ]and concerns the sum of money needed to purchase plenty nutrient to meat a needed lower limit of 2100 Kcal per grownup per twenty-four hours. The 2nd 1 is Upper Povertyline is set at 250 RWS ( $ 0.44 ) besides the 150 RWF to supply 2100 Kcal a twenty-four hours an excess 100 RWF is added to supply for other, non-food basic demands. The chief poorness step is consumption-based4. Meaning that the poorness step is calculated from study informations on family ingestion outgo Harmonizing to the EDPRSP[ 2 ], more than tierce of the population ( 3.49 million people ) lives below the utmost poorness line. Over half the population lives below the upper poorness line ( 5.38 million people ) . Inequality was measured by the Gini coefficient, which was rather high in Rwanda ( 0.51 ) . Besides looking at basic needs the EDPRS besides conceptualizes poorness through subjective Ubudehe studies, or community based engagement studies. This subjective attack of mensurating poorness identified seven socioeconomic classs, in which people positioned themselves based on their perceptual experience of their poorness. It besides identified the major causes of poorness as perceived by the people. This attack is valuable as it reflects the perceptual experiences of the hapless themselves, and non those of ( non-poor ) external analysts and authorities functionaries. Through Ubudehe surveys the Rwandan PRSP indicates that 52.5 % of respondents felt among the poorest group. No less than 87.4 % identify themselves as hapless or worse. Lack of land, hapless dirts and drouth are seen as the major causes for poorness[ 3 ]. Particular attending in the EDPRS goes out to vulnerable families ( headed by adult females, widows and kids ) . As a effect of race murder, they represent 43 % of all the families and are largely concentrated in the rural country s. Objective poorness among vulnerable families is about 60 % higher than norm, bespeaking the importance of aiming aid to peculiarly vulnerable groups. As evident from the scene of poorness lines as the criterion for mensurating poorness, the Rwandan EDPRSP sees conceptualizes poorness as the neo-classical economic experts one-dimensional income deficit. This construct favours economic growing and market-based schemes as the solution to poverty[ 4 ]. It relates to the modernization theory because they follow a additive way whereby development is thought to be achieved by following procedures chiefly prescribed by developed states through their Global Institutions such as The IMF, World Bank and other Aid Agencies. Question 2. The EDPRS negotiations about several dimensions of poorness such as: nutrient, wellness, income, sanitation installations, shelter and instruction A ; information. The EDPRS should advance sustainable economic growing, human development and cut down poorness. In order to make so, the EDPRS promotes three flagship plans. The first focuses on Sustainable Growths for Jobs and Export. This will be achieved by making employment chances. The chief jobs for making this harmonizing to the EDPRS are the low degrees of human capital, a deficiency of accomplishments and weak substructure. So the precedences should include furthering human capital, advancing concern accomplishment development, and upgrading substructure. In this context besides energy supplies, conveyance webs and ICT development are points to concentrate on. The EDPRS speaks out the demand to make non-farm employment by general private sector development. Because most hapless people live in rural countries and are engaged in t raditional agricultural activities there is a demand to overhaul agribusiness and increase its production. For sustained growing over the longer term, it states that here is a demand for a diversified economic system by advancing non-traditional agricultural activities and the non-farm sector. The 2nd flagship programme is Vision 2020 Umerenge, which is a rural development programme which aims to increase the efficiency of public service bringing and to cut down poorness. The end is to extinguish utmost poorness by 2020. It reflects grass root precedences and it will be implemented at the sector degree utilizing attacks where community-based engagement is a cardinal method. It is a pro-poor growing for occupation and exports programme. The programme identifies certain vulnerable mark groups and utilizations intercessions that meet the specific demand of these mark groups. The population in rural countries will be encouraged to travel into more concentrated small town colonies. Harmonizing to the EDPRS the programme should be implemented in three constituents. First, public work with community-based planning and engagement should assist construct community assets and make an on- and off-farm employment substructure. Examples of undertakings mentioned in this context include bettering land productiveness, formal market substructure betterment and bettering entree to imbibing and irrigation H2O. Second, it wants to undertake utmost poorness by the usage of recognition bundles and to forester entrepreneurship and off-farm employment chances. The 3rd constituent is the direct support to better societal protection and entree to societal services. The 3rd flagship programme sets the end of advancing Good Governance. This is described as a pre-condition for development of the state and the decrease of poorness. Particularly in the visible radiation of Rwanda s history of struggle. It is focused on speed uping growing to make employment and to bring forth exports in doing Rwanda attractive for foreign investors. In the EDPRS it is argued that the state should seek to make a comparative advantage in soft substructure , that is, in institutional agreements of import for private investors. Cardinal policy countries pointed to in this context include integrity and rapprochement, defense mechanism and security, justness and human rights, public fiscal direction, and political answerability and transparence. The EDPRS besides emphasises on the importance of keeping Rwanda s repute of holding low degrees of and zero tolerance for, corruptness. Finally the EDPRS has implemented cross-cutting issues in its schemes. These issues are ; gender equality, environmental protection, societal inclusion and HIV/Aids. The EDPRS points out to the advancement that is made in advancing misss instruction and the female parliament representation, but besides emphasises that immense jobs, such as physical maltreatment of adult females and weak female belongings rights, remain. Towards societal inclusion, the EDPRS purposes to enable vulnerable and marginalized groups to take part in productive employment and hold entree to societal services. The EDPRS hopes to make, that by the terminal of its period in 2012, reduced inequality, improved entree to and quality of instruction and wellness services for vulnerable groups. The EDPRS gives attending to the job of overuse of lands and delicate countries, and emphasises the demand to undertake issues of dirt eroding, deforestation, and pollution. This will name for joint sector schemes, and it is established that all the sectors will, in any development undertaking, be required to incorporate environment ratings. Finally the EDPRS is calling that although HIV/Aids is less prevailing in Rwanda than in most other Sub Saharan African states, it is still a possible menace for the state and demands to be addressed.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Love and Lust in the Lyrics (Shakespeares Sonnets) Essay Example Love and Lust in the Lyrics (Shakespeares Sonnets) Paper Love and Lust in the Lyrics (Shakespeares Sonnets) Paper Essay Topic: The Sound and the Fury A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines that rhyme in a particular pattern. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnets were the only non-dramatic poetry that he wrote. Shakespeare used sonnets within some of his plays, but his sonnets are best known as a series of one hundred and fifty-four poems. The series of one hundred and fifty-four poems tell a story about a young aristocrat and a mysterious mistress. Many people have analyzed and contemplated about the significance of these Ã¢â¬Å"loversÃ¢â¬ . After analysis of the content of both the Ã¢â¬Å"young manÃ¢â¬ sonnets and the Ã¢â¬Å"dark lady sonnetsÃ¢â¬ , it is clear that the poet, Shakespeare, has a great love for the young man and only lusts after his mistress. In order to fully understand the depth of emotion that Shakespeare (hereafter the poet) felt for the young man of his sonnets, one must be familiar with the story line of the first sub-sequence of the sonnets. When analyzing the content and depth of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love, the ambiguous nature of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the young man should also be considered. Sonnets 1-126 are addressed to a salient young man: advising him, praising him, and nagging him. The first nineteen sonnets repeat the same message. They encourage the young man to settle down and have children. Because his youthful beauty will not last forever, the poet urges the man to procreate so that the young manÃ¢â¬â¢s unmatched beauty can live on in his children. Many of the early sonnets sing the approbation of the young man and express the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love and emulation for him. Shakespeare used love in the context of a deep friendship, as read in the first four lines of sonnet 26: Lord of my love, to whom in vassalage Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit, To thee I send this written ambassage To witness duty, not to show my wit; (see appendix P for whole sonnet) The mistress then seduces the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s friend and after he contends for her with the young man, the poet gives her up to the lord. In sonnet 42 (see appendix A) the poet confesses his alleged love for his mistress, however, he still lets her run away with his friend. This action poses two questions to the reader. If he loved her so much, why did he let her go? How deep was his love for the young man, that he let him have his mistress? Examining what type of relationship the poet has with the young man answers both questions. Interpreters on the subject of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality can be divided into two groups. There are the few who find sexual attraction revealed toward the friend. Then there are the many that reassure themselves and readers that such an attraction is far from affirmed. For the purpose of this essay, a focus on the minority viewpoint will be examined. Sonnet 20 (see appendix B) shows just one example of sexual connotation that is present throughout the sonnets of the first sub-sequence. Sonnet 75 (see appendix C) is particularly dense with sexual innuendo. Here, to begin with, is the third quatrain: Sometime all full with feasting on your sight, And by and by clean starved for a look; Possessing or pursuing no delight Save what is had, or must from you be took. Here Shakespeare makes Ã¢â¬Å"delightÃ¢â¬ allude to sexual pleasure. Eric Partridge, author of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Bawdy: a Literary and Psychological Essay and Comprehensive Glossary, records that Ã¢â¬Å"Shakespeare does these elsewhere, a typically including among the citations 36. 8 (see appendix D for whole sonnet) where the Ã¢â¬Ësweet hoursÃ¢â¬â¢ of Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢s delightÃ¢â¬â¢ consists of amorous play between the loversÃ¢â¬ (Pequigney 38). Having the poet and the young man in a relationship that goes beyond friendship allows a reader of the sonnets to better understand the depth of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the young man. Of all the sonnets expressing the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the young man, sonnet 116 is the most renowned. According to Freud, love is Ã¢â¬Å"the synthesis between the unsensual, heavenly love and sensual, earth love, of which the characteristics are: a lasting cathexis upon the sexual object, so that it may be loved in the passionless intervals between the gratification of erotic desire and itÃ¢â¬â¢s return, the phenomenon of sexual overvaluation, and a narcissistic relation to the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s egoÃ¢â¬ (Bloom 59-60). So the lover, the poet, treats the loved object, the young man, as he would himself. The loved object serves as a substitute for some unattained ideal. In the case of the sonnets, the ideal is love. Being in love allows the poet to have what he wants but could not acquire before and serves as a means of satisfying his self-love. Joseph Pequigney, author of Such is My Love: A Study of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Sonnets, agrees with and elaborates on Freud. He writes, Ã¢â¬Å"All of these characteristics belong to the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the friend. It is a love that pays handsome narcissistic dividends; it is advantageous also for the friend, who is praised for personal qualities that would likely pass unnoticed were the poet not under the spell of his beauty. Ã¢â¬ Pequigney goes on to touch on the antithesis of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the young man, his lust for his mistress the Ã¢â¬Å"dark ladyÃ¢â¬ . Because the mistress offers no self-seeking advantages, she is Ã¢â¬Å"disesteemed with vice but never virtue ascribed to herÃ¢â¬ (Pequigney 157). The poet attacks and questions her physical attractiveness as the affair goes on and she arouses lust that comes and goes. Sonnets 127-154 are addressed to the Ã¢â¬Å"dark ladyÃ¢â¬ (hereafter the mistress). ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s relations to his mistress vacillate; sometimes sanguine, tender, teasing, or bitterly anger; yet it is a simpler relation than that with the young man. The poet does not have to justify her, as he had to justify the young man out of deep psychological need. The relation with her is for pleasure, passion, and infatuation. When the poet first begins too court the mistress, he employs unmistakable salacious humor, exhibits the combination of desire and disrespect that is the hallmark of lust in the second sub-sequence. His lack of jealously at the fact that she has two other men exhibits his lack of genuine love for his mistress. He does not look to get rid of his mistressÃ¢â¬â¢s other lovers; he simply asks that he is not gotten rid of either. As long as she grants him sexual favors as well, he will remain happy. She may be the opposite of celibate, but he does not mind, so long as he gets his share. The two have sexual relations, for the first time, in the period following sonnet 128 (see appendix F) and shortly before the opening of sonnet 129 (appendix G). Once desire for the woman has been satisfied, revulsion sets in. In his current frame of mind the poet delivers the monologue of sonnet 129, which anatomizes lust while dramatizing his struggle to come to terms with it. The experience is described as three successive phases: (1) carnal desire; (2) consummation; and (3) the aftermath (Ramsey 146). The vicious cycle continually repeats throughout part two. Immediately after sonnet 129 the poet goes back to gaily, gently teasing his mistress, shown in sonnet 130: I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go- My mistress when she walks treads on the ground. And yet by heaven I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. (see appendix H for whole sonnet) Later he goes back to anger and bitterness (131, appendix I) to a mixture of teasing and strong emotion (132, appendix J) back to hatred (133, appendix K). From there, he goes to witty obscenity, with shades of self-contempt and some hostility (135, appendix L) to delicate tenderness (143, appendix M) and back to anger (144, appendix N), to start the cycle all over again. Shakespeare ends the poems to the dark lady savagely and appropriately: For I have sworn thee fair: More perjured eye, To swear against the truth so foul a lie. (see appendix O for whole sonnet) The fury is the fury from his conscious wavering between supposed love and lust. It is not a pleasant way to end 154 love poems, but it is a great way. The story of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnets clearly shows, through the content of the sonnets, how deeply he feels for his young friend and how he merely lusts after his mistress. The sacrifice that the poet made for the young man, by giving up his mistress to the man he loved, proves his great love for him. The poetÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the consummation of the relationship between his mistress and him characterizes his animal lust for her. Shakespeare justifies the young man; he blames the dark lady; he struggles with himself, blames himself, and then tries to justify himself to no avail.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Barnstorming essays Barnstorming: The Wings of Superman Welcome ladies and gentlemen, this is your captain speaking. We are traveling at a maximum speed, and at an altitude of 28,000 feet. There will be no seatbelts, or brakes, so please sit back and enjoy the flight. Would you pay five bucks a pop to fly with a barnstormer? What is a barnstormer? A barnstormer is someone who performs dangerous stunts with an airplane. These dare-devils were called flying circuses, (Hanson78) they would fly low to the ground, stood and walked on wings, or dipped and looped in mid-air. Everyday, these barnstormers would put their lives at risk for public applause. Soon, technology stepped in and scientists and inventors came up with new ideas to make the biplane safer. This fact is what really crashed a barnstormers hopes, No longer would there be that death-defying pilot who flew with the knowledge at the seat of his pants. The commercial air transportation business started off by carrying mail, then cargo, and later passengers. Business boomed after the 1920s and into the 1930s. Controlled airplanes and big money got the best of small time fun. The technology of aviation was a result of barnstorming individualists who put their lives in danger. Background and History of Barnstorming To become a barnstormer, was to express an independent and romantic side. From the 1800s up into the 1900s, it was all about being quiet, calm, and following the rules. The roaring twenties changed all of that; women were actually doing things that men did. Women wanted rights with being able to vote and they wanted the right to be able to fly an airplane as well. Amelia Earhart was one of those individualists who broke out of the 1800s. Even though Colonel Billy Mitchell was the first to fly around the world in 1924. Amelia was the first woman to fly around the world from west to east in June 1937, (refer t...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Evaluation of a New Curriculum Initiative - Essay Example Description of Initiative: Be sure to clearly identify each headingÃ¢â¬â¢s attribute in that section and briefly define it if necessary (e.g., Behaviorism is the psychological foundation behind X, becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦) Finally, be sure to connect each section to your initiative and include classroom practice whenever possible.Ã¢â¬ ¨ Or be proficient. According to Ornstein and Hunkins (2008), the philosophical and psychological foundations of this initiative have to do with the fact that those in power know there needs to be education reform, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do (pp. 56). There is a website summarizing the history of No Child Left Behind. It has already been a dismal failure in terms of trying to raise scores, but that is mainly not the issue.Ã The main issues I take task with, going into the profession of teaching are: a) having a goal of reaching 100% perfection with everyone meeting standards (just not realistic in my view), even by 2014, and b) teaching to the te st, as that does not necessarily show that students have deep understanding of a concept; it only shows you that they can pass a test, if that makes sense.Ã Assessment class teaches that we have learned that you can assess students in many ways.Ã But giving students tests, especially high-stakes testing, is limited in that it can only assess certain types of knowledge.Ã For example, you cant test students reasoning skills very far with giving them multiple choice items on a standardized test other than to know that they gave you the right answer. That doesn't help you very much.Ã But with a performance assessment of some type, such as an essay question or other assessment where students must create a product or a report of some type (where instructors don't have to "teach to the test"), a lot can be gained about what we call a students "deep understanding" of the material.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The WTO has been hijacked by rich country interests, thereby worsening the conditions of the poor in less prosperous countries. ( support) - Essay Example 3). The needs of developing countries were to be put at the center of international trade ring the Ministerial Declaration at Doha. Despite this pledge, the WTO has sidelined the developing countries in favor of promoting the interests of rich countries which are global powers. This paper seeks to provide proof of how the WTO has marginalized developing countries in favor of the rich countries, using the case studies of Zimbabwe and Burma. Under the WTO, all countries, regardless of their stature are supposed to adhere to the lowering of tariffs. As Kachiga (2008, pp. 91) states, one of the main objectives of the WTO is to reduce tariffs by up to 3 per cent in the course of the 21st century. According to the composition effect in which countries specializing in exporting agricultural products are penalized in the same manner as those exporting to protectionist countries, has a negative effect on developing countries in terms of tariffs and true preferences. Essentially, in international markets, exports from developing countries are given lower preference over those from developed countries. Kill & Mcgee (1999) give the example of Zimbabwe which apart from having a lot of mineral wealth also has a lot of food products, yet the latter are not competitive in the international market. In fact, the country relies more on agricultural exports than mining products, with the former making up approximately 40 per cent of all export earnings (Hess 2001, pp. 7). The major agricultural exports include maize, tobacco, and cotton. As a result of the lower preference for agricultural products from rich countries in the international area, Zimbabwe is forced to sell her food products at lower prices than other rich countries with similar food products. Burma also suffers the same tribulations under the WTO as Zimbabwe. For example, Burma exports rice as its major agricultural product. However, due to the political
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Why was Ireland Partitioned Essay In the late 19th century, Ulster became the most prosperous province in Ireland, with the only large-scale industrialization in the country. Its linen industry thrived and its products were imported throughout the world. In the latter part of the century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city on the island. Belfast was particularly famous for its huge dockyards owned by Harland and Wolff1. After the famine there was a preponderance of Protestants in Ulster, with a much larger number of skilled workers than the Catholics. Ulster Unionism was and still is composed of two main elements; the protection and preservation of their religion and of the Ulster Economy. When the Home Rule party began introducing reforms such as the Land Act of 1870 Ulster Unionists began to feel threatened. They saw these reforms as the thin edge of a wedge which they feared might damage their interests2. Although there were vast gulfs of difference between them, they were able to unite remarkably well under the common banner of Unionism, a resolve which was strengthened with the start of land agitation in the North. They saw this as a direct attack on all they strove to protect3. In the 1885 elections, the Home Rule party won 17 of the 33 Ulster seats, a development which shocked many Unionism and Gladstone introduced his first Home Rule Bill. While Gladstone prepared an Irish policy, Lord Randolph Churchill prepared for his own visit to Ireland. In February, he wrote, I decided some time ago that if Gladstone went for Home Rule, the Orange card would be the one to play4. Ninety-three of Gladstones own Liberal MPs voted against the bill, and it was defeated. Disturbed at how close to success the Home Rulers had come, there was an influx of new members into the orange order. The Ulster loyalist anti repeal union was also established. They had a conditional loyalty to the crown which means they supported it as long as it did not interfere with their interests5. In 1886 the Belfast anti-Unionist riots damaged the Home Rule cause in the North. Also in that year Queens University became an independent University instead of affiliating to the other British Universities. In this way Unionists first began showing their feelings of self-reliance and autonomy6. The struggle for home rule continued, and Gladstone introduced a second bill in 1893, only to see it defeated in the House of Lords. The Parliament Act of 1911 reduced the peers veto on legislation to a delaying power. At this time there were three strands of Unionism the Ulster Unionism of Craig and the Unionist Council; the Irish Unionists with Edward Carson; and the British Unionism and Bonar Law. The Irish position changed when Carson, M.P., for Trinity College, was invited to lead Ulster Unionists in February, 19107. A meeting was held at Craigavon, Craigs home, to receive the new leader on 23 September, 1911; 100,000 people attended. The meeting marked the beginning of the campaign against the Home Rule Bill of Asquith which was to go before Parliament in 1912. This bill was rejected by the Lords, but became law in 19148. On the 28th September (Ulster Day) the Solemn League and covenant was signed by Unionist men only. This showed their opposition to Home Rule. Some to show their intent signed it with their own blood. In January 1913 the Ulster Volunteer force (UVF) was founded9. Men paraded and drilled with wooden weapons at first. At the end of April 35,000 rifles and 5 million rounds of ammunition were landed at Larne by the Unionists. No moves were made by the army or police to thwart them and this caused much anger amongst Nationalists. Herbert Asquiths policy of wait and see was not doing much for the situation and he failed to realise the intent of the Unionists. It was only in late 1913 that he began to take Ulster opposition seriously. The Curragh mutiny of July 1914 was a blow that showed his complete lack of power over Ulster10. The prospect of Ireland being partitioned began to be considered as a serious option around this time when Lloyd George suggested the temporary exclusion of parts of Ulster. Bonar Law stated that this should be permanent and Carson also refused to compromise. In July 1914 King George, recognising the looming crisis called the Buckingham Palace conference in an effort to make some progress. This conference was attended by Asquith, Lloyd George, Bonar Law, Carson, Craig, Redmond and Dillon11. At the conference Carson immediately stated that he would not consider anything other than partition. The question was the area for exclusion and the time for which it would be excluded. Redmond suggested that each county could be given a plebiscite whether to opt in or out of Home Rule12. Carson disagreed and said Ulster should vote as a block. This was unacceptable to Redmond. Neither side would concede the counties of Tyrone and Fermanagh. It was here that the conference broke down. The original intention of the Unionists was to defeat Home Rule for all Ireland. However, as time went on the idea of partition began to appeal more and more to them13. They began to see the safety from interference it would give them. What had began as a device for killing home rule had become an end in itself. The implementation of Home Rule had to be delayed for the duration of the Great War. A coalition government was set up and both Carson and Redmond were invited to become members. Redmond turned it down. This was to place him at a disadvantage that was to have severe consequences14. Carson accepted his place immediately. Urged by Redmond many nationalists signed up to fight in the war. The Unionists also fought. Both sides suffered terrible casualties notably at the Battle of the Somme. The war also brought with it the chance the Irish republicans had been waiting years for. The old saying Englands difficulty is Irelands opportunity rang clear as they started a Rising on Easter Monday 191615. As William Butler Yates later wrote about the event alls changed, changed utterly. All had changed. After the executions that followed 1916, the Irish people would no longer be happy with Home Rule. Overnight Redmond and the Home Rulers lost much of their power. Lloyd George organised talks in September 191816. He talked to Carson and Redmond separately. Carson was told he could have immediate permanent Home Rule for the six counties whilst he convinced Redmond it would only be a temporary measure until the war ended. The Irish Convention was an assembly called by Lloyd George which sat in Ireland from July 1917 until March 1918 to address the Irish Question. However it did not have much success in resolving the problems. By the end of the war John Redmond was dead, the Irish party was a spent force and Sinn Fein had come to power. Dail Eireann had been set up by the republicans as their own parliament to ignore Westminster. The British Government would have let Home Rule slide was it not for the fact it was still on the books. Walter Long was a British Unionist politician17. From October 1919 onwards, he was largely concerned with Irish affairs, serving as the chair of the cabinets Long Committee on Ireland. The purpose of this committee was to deal with the Irish question. He would only consider a settlement which was in the Unionists favor. In this capacity he saw them first reject the county by county option. Instead it was proposed that there would be two parliaments one in Dublin and one in Belfast. Both were directly answerable to Westminster. This move would give Unionists control over their own destiny18. The British governments official stance was in favor of ultimate unification. The Unionists were first offered nine counties. This was turned down as they feared nine was too big for them to retain full control over. Instead they demanded six counties. The government of Ireland bill was introduced on the 26th of February 192019. It caused much hostility in the border counties and rioting in Belfast between June and September. On 3rd May it came into effect, creating separate home rule governments for Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, the latter he endowed with wider powers than its southern counterpart. Although in southern and western Ireland, this was soon superseded by the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which gave the new Irish Free State a much greater share of independence. The king opened the new parliament in Ulster in May 192120. In conclusion, this essay has examined the reasons behind the partition question in Ireland and had accessed the causes of this divide in detail. It is ironic that the Unionist people fought so hard and so long against Home Rule just to later adopt it for themselves. 1J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, pages 9-11 2 Alvin Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998, pages 145 3 D. G. Boyce, Nineteenth Century Ireland, pages 200-201 4 D. G. Boyce, Nineteenth Century Ireland, pages 194-195 5 Pauric Travers, Settlements and Divisions, 116-117 6 Paul Bew, Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism 1912-1916 pages 8-9 7 D. G. Boyce, Nineteenth Century Ireland, pages 186-187 8 Michael Laffan, The Partition of Ireland, 1911-1925 9 Pauric Travers, Settlements and Divisions, pages 126-128 10 Alvin Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998, pages 151-153 11 J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, pages 17-20 12 D. G. Boyce, Nineteenth Century Ireland, pages 200 13 Alvin Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998, pages 156 14 J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, pages 13-15 15 Pauric Travers, Settlements and Divisions, pages 139-140 16 Pauric Travers, Settlements and Divisions, pages 145 17 J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, pages 19-20 18 Paul Bew, Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism 1912-1916 pages 17 19 Paul Bew, Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism 1912-1916 pages 118-119 20 J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, pages 24-25